- On 29 Eylül 2015
- In Blog General
Hagia Sophia (Holy wisdom of Jesus) is one of the most important buildings ever built by the Eastern Roman Empire. it is the symbol of Harmony , peace and tolerance in Islam and the midpoint of the world’s religions. it represent the Multicultural history in between Islamic arts and Christianity.
Holy wisdom of Jesus
it was built as a Church in A.D. 532- 537 by the Justinianus the 1th. it was the largest cathedral in the world . Hagia Sophia was used as a christian cathedral for almost 916 years.
Then Hagia sophia converted to a Mosque in 1453 by the Fatih Sultan Mehmet the second. it had been used as an islamic mosque for 481 years and since 1935 it is a Museum.
HAGİA SOPHİA İN THE HEART OF OLD TOWN
Hagia Sophia is located at the Sultan Ahmet
Square which is nearby the Blue Mosque in the old town of historical Peninsula of İstanbul. A truly beautiful building with its massive Dome ,incredible because of its wonderful gold ,silver ,gemstone made mosaics.
The most wonderful for its Islamic designed plaster and the most beautiful and warmest building ever for the Christianity and Judaism, Islam and Hinduism and more other religions comes together here. Once you are inside you won’t believe your own eyes while sunset coming inside Through the Windows.
The marbles lying on the floor which were taken from the marmara islands will reflect the sunlight through your eyes and you will feel like you are in Paradise.
HAGİA SOPHİA AND GREAT CONSTANTİNE
Hagia sophia’s history is connected with the earlier decisions of Constantine the Great.
Emperor Constantine in A.D. 325 organized the Council of Nicaea which is the first ecumenical council recognized by Christian churches. After the Council of Nicaea Christians got their freedom and Roman Empire officially accepted the Christianity.
After the Nicaea Consil great Constantine came to Byzantium he realized the prosperity of the land, beauty of the Bosphorus and Golden Horn.
The New land matched with his dream and decided to move the capital city from Rome to Byzantium. He put the city under the construction, expanded the city walls, built new buildings such as Hippodrome, government buildings, cisternas, etc. in A.D 330 Constantinople became the new capital city of Roman Empire’s and in 337 Great Constantine passed away.
HAGİA SOPHİA İS NOT THE FİRST TEMPLE
Hagia sophia mostly thought by the people as it is the first building in the same location. But it is not.
Today we know in the same place of Hagia Sophia Museum there was a pagan Temple but II Constantius the son of Great Constantin in A.D. 360 decided to build a Christian Church in the same place of that Temple was located.
He built a wooden church with the name of Megale Ekklesia (great church) in 404. The importance of the Megale Ekklesia is “ The first Official Church of the Roman empire , The first building with a basilical plan covered with wooden roof “ but unfortunatelly in a big fire the first church burned down than By Theodosisus second church was built in 404- 415.
They Gave the name to the Second Church Hagia Sophia (sacred Wisdom of jesus, or Holy wisdom of Jesus). it was the Main church of the Eastern Roman empire till the NİKA revolution wich happened at the time of Justinianus the 1th.
Archeolog A. M. Scheinder
İn 1936 a german Archeolog A. M. Scheinder found the Place in the excavations, today When you are at the entrance of Hagia sophia Museum, we have an exibition to show our guests columns, ruins of the first Hagia Sophia, the the atriyum and also the symbols of the twelve apostles with the lamb figures on the Marbels.
HAGİA SOPHİA AND NİKA ( Victory ) REVOLT
Hagia sophia’s founder Justinianus period had an enormous chaos because of NİKA Revolt. İn 532 in the Hippodrom which is located approximately 200 mt away from Hagia sophia a Revolt started. The name of the Revolutıon is known as NİKA Sedition or Nika Revolt. İt is the most cruel revolt of the city’s history. Half of the city was burned down thousands of people were killed and the Theodosisu’s Hagia sophia was destroyed
after the Nika sedition.
HAGİA SOPHİA AND NİKA REVOLT
Than Justinianus decided to built another church which we see these days the Great Cathedral Hagia Sophia.
Hagia sophia was Built during the reign of justinianus the 1th. İn between 532-537. Just in five years.
The two important architects of the time, Miletos (Miletus) Isidoros and Tralles (Aydın) Anthemios and almost eleven thousands of masters and labors worked together to built it.
When they complited the Hagia sophia construction it was the bairam of Justinianus. Because his dream was to built such a building which is much bigger than the Solomon’s temple İn Jerusalem. With Hagia sophia his dream came true hence, he was super exited came to the main entrance opened the door and said;
“Thank you God for giving me the opportunity to make such a place of worship did you see Solomon i passed you”
Once you enter to the building you see all inside is full of marbles, columns and amazing handwork marble arts. All the marbles came from different regions. Such as Aspendos, Ephesos, Baalbek, Tarsus were brought from the ancient city of Anatolia and Syria. The white marbles in the building were used in the Marmara Island, the green ones in Euboea Island, the pink marbles in Afyon and the yellow marbles were brought from North Africa and used in Hagia Sophia.
Temple of Ephesus Artemis
Nowadays we know that the columns brought from the Temple of Ephesus Artemis in the structure were used in the naves, and the eight porphyry columns brought from Egypt were used under half domes. İn total there are 104 columns, 40 of them are in the lower gallery and 64 of them are in the upper gallery.
The mosaics used in the interior designs you see today are Mostly after 9 th, 10th, 11th, 13 th century mosaics. Because of the iconoclasm period (726-843) we are not able to see the mosaics from Earliest times.
Crusade the latin Empire
During the IV. Crusade the latin Empire took the Cathedreal and they destroyed the city.
Latin crusaders dameged the building, they stole many things from constantinople and from Hagia sophia in between 1204-1261. they used the Cathedral as a Catholic Cathedral for almost sixty years. Which is Originally an Orthodox church. Till when the Eastern Roman city was taken over again in 1261.
Hagia sophia the oldest Cathedral in the world converted in to a Mosque İn 1453. Fatih Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror (1451-1481) took the City in 1453, and Turned the Hagia Sophia Cathedral in to a Mosque just in three days.
Covered the Mosaics with plaster, added Minarets and islamic additions and the muslims started to use it as an İslamic Musque for 481 years Untill 1934.
In the Ottoman period, in between 16th and 17th centuries, mihrabs, muezzin mahfili, sermon and maksures and some several islamic structers were added.
during the reign of Sultan Abdülmecid, between 1847 and 1849, the Swiss Fossati Brothers opened the mosaics and covered them again with plasters and also added the Hünkar mahfili, müezzin mahfili and Mihrap and minber (pulpit) etc.
When it was 1935 with the order of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Hagia sophia Mosque Turned in to a Museum. Henceforth 1935 till today it is just a museum which is one of the most populer museums in Turkey and also İn İstanbul.
As we are the team of findistanbulguide.com we offer more detailed history of the museums. Every day from the opening time to the closing time we have tours with professional tourguides. İf the Hagia sophia is on your visiting list we guarantee your dream will come true. You will feel like you are in a time machine and Hagia Sophia’s history will become alive with our Guidance thanks to findistanbulguide.com